Glossary of terms
Here you will find definitions of terms used in resources on the Foodsource website. You will also find these definitions on the right-hand side within chapters. If you have any suggestions for new glossary items, let us know here.
A monogastric is a mammals with a single-compartmented stomach. Examples of monogastrics include humans, poultry, pigs, horses, rabbits, dogs and cats. Most monogastrics are generally unable to digest much cellulose food materials such as grasses. Herbivores with a monogastric digestion system (e.g. horses and rabbits) are able to digest cellulose in their diets through microbes in their gut, but they extract less energy from these foods than do ruminants. A major proportion of the feed given to monogastrics reared in intensive systems comprises human edible grains and soybeans.
Multiple burdens of malnutrition
The multiple burdens of malnutrition refers to the simultaneous presence of more than one form of malnutrition (e.g. undernutrition and obesity) in an individual, household, or population.
Nitrogen fixation is the process through which atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is converted into ammonia (NH3) or related nitrogenous compounds that, when present in the soil, can be utilised by plants. Plants are unable to utilise atmospheric nitrogen (N2) for plant growth because it is a relatively unreactive gas. There are two main processes through which nitrogen fixation occurs in the food system: artificial nitrogen fixation through the Haber-Bosch process – the process underlying the production of synthetic fertiliser – and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) through bacteria in the soil and roots of particular plant and tree species such as legumes.
Non-communicable diseases are diseases which are not passed from person to person. They are often long lasting and generally progress slowly. Examples include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Unhealthy diets are one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases.
NOVA food classification
The NOVA classification is a system of food classification created by a team of nutrition and health researchers at the University of São Paulo led by Carlos Monteiro. NOVA categorises food products by the ‘extent’ and ‘purpose’ of food processing on the grounds that today this is the main determinant of a food’s nutritional and environmental characteristics. NOVA has four categories: minimally processed food; processed culinary ingredients; processed foods; and ultra-processed foods. Introduced as a framework to measure the impacts of processed foods on human health, NOVA has also been promoted as an alternative to traditional government-approved dietary guidance such as the US MyPlate, the UK Eatwell plate or the Chinese Food Pagoda. While criticised, NOVA is increasingly used as a framework in nutrition science, especially in nutritional epidemiology. The dietary guidelines of Brazil (2014), Uruguay (2016), Ecuador (2018) and Peru (2019) and some reports from the PAHO-WHO have drawn upon the NOVA classification while the French (2019) dietary recommendations advise to reduce the consumption of ‘ultra-transformed’ foods.
Nudge approaches are the specific application of nudge theory, whereby the physical or informational environment in which decision making takes place is purposefully changed in order to affect behaviour. One example is using smaller plates to subtly limit overall food consumption in canteens.
Nudge theory is a concept in behavioural science, economics, and political science which tries to achieve non-forced compliance with desired behaviours (e.g. policies). It does this through the adjustment of messaging and the context in which decisions are made, in ways that have been found to predictably affect the motives, incentives, and decision making of individuals and groups of people.
Nutritional epidemiology is a sub-branch of epidemiology. This field of study focuses on the distribution and determinants of diseases and other medical conditions in a population. Nutritional epidemiology studies the relationships between dietary patterns, nutrient intake and their impacts upon public health. Common methods in nutritional epidemiology include dietary surveys and cohort studies, by which statistical associations between (say) food consumption and medical conditions such as cancer or obesity are studied.
Nutritionism, coined by the Australian academic Gyorgy Scrinis and popularised by the US journalist and food writer Michael Pollan, is a term used to describe and critique the dominant assumption of much nutrition science research – and often of mainstream dietary recommendations – that it is possible to understand the health implications of individual food products as well as dietary patterns in terms of their micro and macronutrient proﬁles. From this nutritionist perspective, foods are primarily viewed as interchangeable vehicles for the delivery of specific and isolated nutrients. Criticising ‘Big Food’ and the food products it provides, users of the concept tend to highlight the role of food in social and cultural life and argue that healthy dietary patterns mostly consist of home-made meals and dishes that are largely based on unprocessed food ingredients. Gyorgy Scrinis also argues that nutritionism has contributed to the food industry’s use of reformulation and nutrient fortiﬁcation, which are aimed at improving a food’s nutrient profile.
Organic farming is an approach to farming in which synthetic chemical insecticides and herbicides and inorganic fertilisers are entirely or largely avoided. Underpinning organic farming is the idea that farming should rely on ecological processes, biodiversity, and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects (e.g. agrochemicals such as pesticides and synthetic fertilisers). Certification bodies (e.g. the Soil Association in the United Kingdom) specify the practices, methods of pest control, soil amendments, and so forth that are permissible if products are to achieve organic certification.
Overnutrition generally refers to excessive intake of energy and sometimes to the excessive intake of a particular macronutrient or micronutrient. Overnutrition in terms of energy often results in being overweight or obese.
Ozone is a molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms (chemical formula O3; ‘trioxygen’). In the upper atmosphere (‘stratosphere’) ozone plays an important role in absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun, but is also a greenhouse gas, and at the surface has negative impacts on human health and plant growth. Ozone is also one of the by-products from atmospheric methane oxidation.
Ozone layer depletion
Ozone layer depletion is a decline in the level of ozone gas (O3) present in the earth's stratosphere, owing to its breakdown into oxygen (O2). This breakdown can be affected by natural processes, but is known to have been accelerated by the release of man-made chemicals, such as refrigerant gases. The ozone layer acts to reduce the amount of light at ultra-violet wavelengths reaching the earth's surface; wavelengths that can have harmful impacts on humans, including skin cancer.
PAHO-WHO is the abbreviation for the Pan American Health Organisation of the World Health Organisation.
A pandemic is the widespread occurrence (i.e. global or at multiple continents) of a disease during a particular period. Historically, many pandemics have involved infectious diseases that have been spread by viruses such as cholera and flu. Pandemics, however, can both be caused by communicable and non-communicable diseases.