• Livestock is a contested issue linking multiple health, socio-economic, environmental and ethical concerns.
  • These issues are contextual and differ between developed and developing countries.
  • Trends indicate increased demand for animal products, although this growth is uneven between regions and across socio-economic groups.
  • Advocacy of different solutions depends on differing perspectives that variously emphasise production efficiency, demand restraint and food system rebalance.
  • Sustainable healthy diets (Chapter 9) need to take into account the positive and negative health factors, and environmental and ethical issues associated with meat and dairy production and consumption.